International expansion of telecommunication carriers: The influence of market structure, network characteristics, and entry imperfections
by Sarkar, M. B., S. Tamer Cavusgil, Preet S. Aulakh
Journal of International Business Studies, 30, no. 2 (1999): 361-382
The internationalization process of telecommunication carriers is examined. In this industry, early entrants gain substantial first-mover advantages due to the transient nature of the windows of market opportunity, and the potential to influence the regulatory process as an incumbent. To capture the strategic and economic advantages, firms follow a strategy of preemption, both of markets and partners. An argument is made for the need to augment prevailing theory with contextual idiosyncrasies that characterize specific industries.